Race, John R. Baker

The entire book can be downloaded ‘here’ (274 Mo). And here is the PDF version.

“In his posthumous book [187] he [Camper] shows the skull of the orang-utan again, this time with the horizontal plane indicated in his standard way, and he gives the facial angles of this animal, of an unspecified monkey, and of certain races of man. His figures are these: monkey, 42°; orang-utan, 58° (the same figure as he had given before); a young Negro, 70°; a European, 80° (Fig. 3).” (p. 29)

“The German anthropologist von Eickstedt considered that the Europid smell was particularly strong in people of the Nordid subrace and other subraces of northern and central Europe. He remarked that the smell was pleasant to persons of the same race, but that to the Japanese it seemed ‘pungent and rancid’. [302]” (p. 174)

“It is stated by Adachi that all Negroes are smelly to the Japanese, and that the smell is very repulsive to them. [5] … Many records of the strong smell of Negroes to persons of other races are quoted by the German anthropologist Andree. [22] He mentions that the Masai of East Africa, who belong to the Aethiopid subrace of the Europids and are thus quite distinct from typical Negroes, find the smell of the coastal natives ‘verhaszt’ (odious).” (p. 175)

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Beauté et nutrition (Add Health)

La nutrition peut constituer une très grande source de beauté, et nous avons certainement en tête que des aliments qui ne sont pas bénéfiques pour notre santé ne sont pas bénéfiques également pour notre apparence physique (la peau, en particulier). Une façon de tester cette hypothèse est de traiter les données de l’Add Health se rapportant aux types de nourriture.

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Politiques de relance et politiques d’austérité : France vs Suède vs Angleterre

Un récent débat opposant Robert Murphy à “Lord Keynes” a porté sur l’interprétation de la réussite de la Suède pour modérer la crise. Dans cet article, Murphy a exposé toute une série de chiffres pour montrer que la politique des Etats-Unis a été 1) plus expansionniste que la Suède en 2007-2009 et 2) moins liquidationniste que la Suède en 2009-2011 qui, pourtant, traverse mieux la crise que les Etats-Unis. C’est, dit-il, le contraire de ce que la théorie keynésienne prévoyait. Lord Keynes a immédiatement répliqué à Murphy :

… different countries had different economic conditions, and different crises; consequently, there is no reason why different levels of stimulus will have worked in some nations and not in others. Or why a stimulus of a certain level in Sweden was appropriate there, but not in America.

Mais Robert Murphy ne l’ignore certainement pas. D’ailleurs, il avait lui-même reconnu que ces données ne prouvent absolument rien :

Since Sweden handled the crisis much better than the US did, I would say the case of Sweden is prima facie evidence for the Austrian / austerian camp. As always in these matters, these particular data don’t prove anything; maybe there are confounding factors.

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De certains déterminants et prédicteurs de la beauté physique (Add Health)

On entend dire parfois qu’une bonne santé est associée à la beauté, de même que la pratique de l’exercice et le fait d’être heureux. Il est aussi très commun d’entendre dire que le fait d’être beau favorise les opportunités amoureuses. Une idée aussi avancée serait que les personnes violentes au mauvais comportement seraient moins belles. On peut également soupçonner que la beauté est inversement corrélée à la timidité, pour des raisons évidentes. Une façon de tester ces hypothèses est de traiter les données de l’Add Health se rapportant à chacun des points évoqués.

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Le mythe de la menace du stéréotype : les noirs pensent être intelligents (GSS & Add Health)

Steele et Aronson (1995) ont suggéré que la persistance des différences raciales en ce qui concerne le QI (asiatiques > blancs > hispaniques > noirs) peut s’expliquer par ce qu’ils appellent la menace du stéréotype. Pour commencer, Sackett et al. ont démontré que leur interprétation est viciée. La menace du stéréotype n’explique en rien les différences actuelles entre les noirs et les blancs.

Rather than suggesting stereotype threat as the explanation for SAT differences, it suggests that the threat manipulation creates an effect independent of SAT differences.
Thus, rather than showing that eliminating threat eliminates the large score gap on standardized tests, the research actually shows something very different. Specifically, absent stereotype threat, the African American–White difference is just what one would expect based on the African American–White difference in SAT scores, whereas in the presence of stereotype threat, the difference is larger than would be expected based on the difference in SAT scores.

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Genetic and Environmental Influences on Human Psychological Differences – Bouchard & McGue

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Human Psychological Differences, Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr., Matt McGue.

Selon Jergen, le facteur g reflète certaines propriété du cerveau humain, compte tenu du fait qu’il est étroitement lié à la taille du cerveau, au taux métabolique, à la vitesse de conduction nerveuse, et la latence des potentiels évoqués électriques. Pour comprendre l’importance pratique du facteur g dans la vie quotidienne (voir Gottfredson).

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Human Psychological Differences - Figure 2

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Genome-wide association studies establish that human intelligence is highly heritable and polygenic

Genome-wide association studies establish that human intelligence is highly heritable and polygenic, G. Davies, A. Tenesa, A. Payton, J. Yang, S. E. Harris, D. Liewald, X. Ke, S. Le Hellard, A. Christoforou, M. Luciano, K. McGhee, L. Lopez, A. J. Gow, J. Corley, P. Redmond, H. C. Fox, P. Haggarty, L. J. Whalley, G. McNeill, M. E. Goddard, T. Espeseth, A. J. Lundervold, I. Reinvang, A. Pickles, V. M. Steen, W. Ollier, D. J. Porteous, M. Horan, J. M. Starr, N. Pendleton, P. M. Visscher and I. J. Deary. 2011.

General intelligence is an important human quantitative trait that accounts for much of the variation in diverse cognitive abilities. Individual differences in intelligence are strongly associated with many important life outcomes, including educational and occupational attainments, income, health and lifespan. Data from twin and family studies are consistent with a high heritability of intelligence, but this inference has been controversial. We conducted a genome-wide analysis of 3511 unrelated adults with data on 549 692 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and detailed phenotypes on cognitive traits. We estimate that 40% of the variation in crystallized-type intelligence [i.e., knowledge] and 51% of the variation in fluid-type intelligence [i.e., problem solving abilities] between individuals is accounted for by linkage disequilibrium between genotyped common SNP markers and unknown causal variants. These estimates provide lower bounds for the narrow-sense heritability of the traits. We partitioned genetic variation on individual chromosomes and found that, on average, longer chromosomes explain more variation. Finally, using just SNP data we predicted ~1% of the variance of crystallized and fluid cognitive phenotypes in an independent sample (P= 0.009 and 0.028, respectively). Our results unequivocally confirm that a substantial proportion of individual differences in human intelligence is due to genetic variation, and are consistent with many genes of small effects underlying the additive genetic influences on intelligence.

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