Avoir des enfants rend-il heureux ?

Kanazawa (2004) avait démontré qu’avoir des enfants ne rendait pas les parents plus heureux. La parentalité diminue en fait le bonheur. En utilisant les données du General Social Survey, il montre que la parentalité a un effet négatif sur le bonheur (variable dépendante) mais que le fait d’être marié était associé à un bonheur plus élevé. Je vais ici tenter de répliquer ce résultat. Ensuite, je commenterais l’étude de Myrskylä & Margolis (2012) dont la conclusion des auteurs diffère de la mienne. Enfin, j’expliquerai que ces mesures du “bonheur général” ne sont pas des évaluations adéquates du bonheur.

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Specific Aptitude Theory Revisited: Is There Incremental Validity for Training Performance?

Specific Aptitude Theory Revisited: Is There Incremental Validity for Training Performance?

Kenneth G. Brown, Huy Le and Frank L. Schmidt
University of Iowa

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SELECTION AND ASSESSMENT VOLUME 14 NUMBER 2 JUNE 2006

There has been controversy over the years about whether specific mental abilities increment validity for predicting performance above and beyond the validity for general mental ability (GMA). Despite its appeal, specific aptitude theory has received only sporadic empirical support. Using more exact statistical and measurement methods and a larger data set than previous studies, this study provides further evidence that specific aptitude theory is not tenable with regard to training performance. Across 10 jobs, differential weighting of specific aptitudes and specific aptitude tests were found not to improve the prediction of training performance over the validity of GMA. Implications of this finding for training research and practice are discussed.

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Flynn contra Rushton on principal component analysis : A failed replication

While Rushton (1999) demonstrates, using PCA, that g and black-white differences were related, with Flynn Effect (FE) gains over time showing no relationship with the aforementioned variables, Flynn (2000) has challenged Rushton in arguing that Wechsler’s subtest loadings on the Raven test, an universally recognized measure of fluid g, showed positive correlations with both black-white differences and FE gains. Up to now, Flynn’s estimates of g fluid (Gf) has not been scrutinized. I will show presently that the Flynn’s g-fluid (call it, fluid reasoning) and Rushton’s g-crystallized (call it, consolidated knowledge) anomaly was solely due to a single statistical artifact, namely, g_Fluid vector unreliability. By adding additional samples, I created a new, updated Wechsler’s subtest Gf loadings. The present analysis comes to the conclusion that g_Fluid was not in fact correlated with FE gains. Furthermore, this Gf variable has been correlated with other variables as well, such as, heritability (h2), shared environment (c2), nonshared environment (e2), adoption IQ gains, inbreeding depression (ID), and mental retardation (MR). I will also discuss these findings in light of Kan’s (2011) thesis against the hereditarian hypothesis.

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IQ Testing : From Correlation to Causation

It is well known and acknowledged that IQ correlates with social outcomes (Herrnstein & Murray, 1994; Jensen, 1998; Gottfredson, 1997), measures of health (Gottfredson, 2003, & Deary, 2004; Reeve & Basalik, 2010), wages (Jones & Schneider, 2008), savings (Jones, 2012), job performance (Ree & Earles, 1994; Hunter & Schmidt, 2004), training success (Ree & Earles, 1991), general knowledge (Reeve, 2004), general economic peformance (Jones & Schneider, 2006; Jones, 2011, 2012; Hafer & Jones, 2012; Meisenberg, 2012; Kalonda-Kanyama & Kodila-Tedika, 2012), and this, without mentioning other many correlates of importance (Lynn & Vanhanen, 2012). But IQ critics usually claim that correlational studies tell us nothing about the causal link. The present article will introduce some research on this topic.

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Les tests QI, de corrélation à causalité

S’il est aujourd’hui bien admis et reconnu que le QI corrèle avec les résultats socio-économiques (Herrnstein & Murray, 1994; Jensen, 1998; Gottfredson, 1997), les indices et mesures de santé (Gottfredson, 2003, & Deary, 2004; Reeve & Basalik, 2010), le salaire (Jones & Schneider, 2008), l’épargne (Jones, 2012), la performance au travail (Ree & Earles, 1994), la performance dans les cours de formation (Ree & Earles, 1991), les connaissances générales (Reeve, 2004), la performance économique générale (Jones & Schneider, 2006; Jones, 2011, 2012; Hafer & Jones, 2012; Meisenberg, 2012; Kalonda-Kanyama & Kodila-Tedika, 2012), et ceci, sans mentionner d’autres corrélats bien évidents (Lynn & Vanhanen, 2012), les critiques continuent à affirmer que la causalité n’est pas prouvée pour autant. Le présent article s’attèle à présenter l’état des recherches actuelles sur le sujet.

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