WISC-R Subscale Patterns of Abilities of Blacks and Whites Matched on Full Scale IQ

WISC-R Subscale Patterns of Abilities of Blacks and Whites Matched on Full Scale IQ

Cecil R. Reynolds
Texas A & M University

Arthur R. Jensen
University of California, Berkeley

Journal of Educational Psychology 1983, Vol. 75, No. 2, 207-214

Groups of 270 black and 270 white children drawn from the national stratified random sample used in the standardization of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Revised (WISC-R) were matched on age, sex, and WISC-R Full-Scale IQ to facilitate investigation of the patterns of specific cognitive abilities, as measured by the 12 subtests of the WISC-R, between the two racial groups. Multivariate analysis of the patterns of subtest differences between whites and blacks and group comparisons on three orthogonalized factor scores (verbal, performance, memory) show small but reliable average white-black differences in patterns of ability. The IQ-matched racial groups show no significant difference on the verbal factor; whites exceed blacks on the performance (largely spatial visualization) factor; blacks exceed whites on the memory factor.

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Occupation and income related to psychometric g

Occupation and income related to psychometric g

Helmuth Nyborg, Arthur R. Jensen, 2001.


The regressions of occupational status and income on psychometric g factor scores were examined in large samples of White (W) and Black (B) American armed forces veterans in their late 30s and who are fairly representative of the population of employed W and B males. These results indicate that when Bs and Ws are matched on g scores, there is no evidence of discrimination unfavorable to Bs for job status at any level of g. Nor are Bs with the same g scores as Ws disadvantaged in income when they are above the median level of g in the total sample. In fact, on both variables – job status and income – Ws turn out to be the relatively more disadvantaged group when the level of g is taken into account.

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The Social Costs of Pornography


A Statement of Findings and Recommendations

Mary Eberstadt and Mary Anne Layden, 2010.


SINCE THE BEGINNING OF THE INTERNET AGE, pornography has been consumed in greater quantities than ever before in human history, and its content has grown more graphic. Recent research suggests that pornography consumption — especially consumption of a more hard-core or violent sort — has negative effects on individuals and society. More studies are necessary, but a growing body of research strongly suggests that for some users pornography can be psychologically addictive, and can negatively affect the quality of interpersonal relationships, sexual health and performance, and social expectations about sexual behavior. Widespread pornography consumption appears to pose a serious challenge to public health and to personal and familial well-being. With concerted action from legislators, the therapeutic community, educators, policymakers, and responsible corporate leaders, however, some of the negative effects of pornography consumption can be combated.

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Spearman’s hypothesis tested with Raven’s Progressive Matrices: A psychometric meta-analysis

Spearman’s hypothesis tested with Raven’s Progressive Matrices: A psychometric meta-analysis

Jasper Repko, master thesis, 2011.



There are four versions of the Raven’s: the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) for the ages of 6 years to adulthood; the Colored Progressive Matrices, an easier version of the test designed for children aged 5 through 12; the Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM), a harder version of the test designed for older adolescents and adults with higher ability; and the Standard Progressive Matrices Plus (SPM plus), an extended version of the SPM offering more discrimination among more able young adults.

The SPM consists of 60 diagrammatic puzzles, each with a missing part that the test taker attempts to identify from several options. The 60 puzzles are divided into five sets (A, B, C, D, and E) of 12 items each. To ensure sustained interest and freedom from fatigue, each problem is boldly presented, accurately drawn, and, as far as possible, pleasing to look at. No time limit is set and all testees are allowed to complete the test. As an untimed capacity test, and even as a 20-min speed or efficiency test, the SPM is usually regarded as a good measure of the nonverbal component of general intelligence rather than of culturally specific information. The total score is also a very good measure of g, the general factor of intelligence, at least within Western countries (Jensen, 1980).

The Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) is designed for young children, elderly, and people with moderate or severe learning difficulties. The test consists of 36 items. The first 12 items are the same as the first 12 items from the SPM (set A); the following 12 items are specially designed for the CPM. The last 12 items are again items from the SPM, this time items 13-24 (set B). Most of the items are presented on a colored background in order to keep the attention of the participants. The last couple of items from the test are, however, presented in black and white. If the participants manage to complete the test without too much difficulty they can continue without any problems with sets C, D, and E of the SPM.

The APM is a more difficult version of the Raven Progressive Matrices. The advanced form of the Matrices contains 48 diagrammatic puzzles, presented as one set of 12 (set 1), and another of 36 (set 2). Set 1 serves as an introduction, and set 2 is used to test the participants and compare scores. Items are presented in black ink on a white background, and become increasingly difficult as progress is made through each set. These items are appropriate for adults and adolescents of above average intelligence. Whenever we refer to the APM in this paper, we refer to set 2 of the APM.

The SPM Plus is the extended version of the SPM and is meant to restore the discriminative ability of the test (Raven, 1998). The SPM Plus was introduced as a revised version of the SPM. It consists of new items, most of which have been equated to match the old items in difficulty, but some are more difficult than any that appear on the SPM.

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